2. 指代題：指代題的解題技巧就是「往前一句」找主詞，Ex: The dog are very cute. They are playing together. 此時的they所指的就是the dogs. 如果說前一句的主詞與一不一致就在往前找，確保選項代入後的語意和文法(單複數等等)都正確。
3. 細節題：細節題我自己的作題方法是在題目中找關鍵字再回去文章定位，Ex: According to paragraph 1, why is play difficult to define? 定位完成後，回到文章去找類似的字，這時候要考驗單字的量跟paraphrase的技巧了～
Play is easier to define with examples than with concepts. In any case, in animals it consists of leaping, running, climbing, throwing, wrestling, and other movements, either along, with objects, or with other animals. Depending on the species, play may be primarily for social interaction, exercise, or exploration. One of the problems=(difficult)in providing a clear definition of play is that it involves the same behaviors that take place in other circumstance--dominance, predation, competition, and real fighting. Thus, whether play occurs or not depends on the intention of the animals, and the intentions are not always clear from behaviors alone.
Ex: It can be inferred from paragraph 2 that the Head Start program was designed to serve children who
While many programs designed for preschoolers focus primarily on social and emotional factors, some are geared mainly toward promoting cognitive gains and preparing preschoolers for the formal instruction they will experience when they start kindergarten. In the United States, the best-known program designed to promote future academic success is Head Start.( Established in the 1960s when the United States declared the War on Poverty, the program has served over 13 million children and their families. The program, which stresses parental involvement, was designed to serve the “whole child”, including children’s physical health, self-confidence, social responsibility, and social and emotional development.
A. Come from families that do not have a lot of money
B. Are not doing very well in kindergarten (未提及，排除)
C. Were born in the 1950s (Head Start建立於1960年，矛盾，排除)
D. Need programs that focus primarily on social and emotional factors (之前的program，不是Head Start，排除)
這題比較簡單用定位即可找到答案，文章說Head Start這個program在1960年當美國宣布''war on poverty''時所建立，因此可推論出(A)是為貧窮家庭很設計的。
All of the following are mentioned in paragraph 2 as ways that Venice provided rowers for its galley EXCEPT
A. Requiring business associations to provide sailors
B. Recruiting sailors from other cities in northern Italy
C. Drafting Venetian citizens into services as rowers
D. Appealing to the traditions of Venice as a sea power.
This decline can be seen clearly in the changes that affected Venetian shipping and trade. First, Venice’s intermediary functions in the Adriatic Sea, where it had dominated the business of shipping for other parties, were lost to direct trading. In the fifteenth century there was little problem recruiting sailors to row the galleys (開始進入重點) (large ships propelled by oars): guilds (business associations)(對應A選項) were required to provide rowers, and through a draft system free citizens(對應C選項) served compulsorily when called for. In the early sixteenth century the shortage of rowers was not serious because the demand for galleys was limited by a move to round ships (round-hulled ships with more cargo space), with required fewer rowers. But the shortage of crews proved to be a greater and greater problem, despite continuous appeal to Venic’s tradition(對應D選項) of maritime greatness. Even though sailors’ wages doubled among the northern Italian cities from 1550 to 1590, this did not elicit an increased supply.
Ex: Why does the author mention “Alexander the Great” in the passage?
The source of Roman obsession with unity and cohesion may well have lain in the pattern of Rome’s early development. Whereas Greece had grown from scores of scattered cities, Rome grew from one single organism. While the Greek world had expanded along the Mediterranean seas lanes, the Roman world was assembled by territorial conquest. Of course, thecontrast is not quite so stark: in Alexander the Great the Greeks had found the greatest territorial conqueror of all time; and the Romans, once they moved outside Italy, did not fail to learn the lessons of sea power. Yet the essential difference is undeniable.
A. To acknowledge that Greek civilization also expanded by land conquest
B. To compare Greek leaders to Roman leaders
C. To give an example of Greek leader whom Romans studied
D. To indicate the superior organization of the Greek military
A. The punctuated equilibrium hypothesis challenged gradualism, which holds that species evolve in relatively sudden bursts of brief duration 未提及
B. The punctuated equilibrium hypothesis developed by Stephen Jay Gould and Niles Eldredge was challenged in 1972. 是他們提出新的想法而不是他們被挑戰
C. In 1972 Stephen Jay Gould and Niles Eldredge challenged gradualism by positing that change from one species to another cannot occur without a lengthy transition period. 與原意相反
D. The punctuate equilibrium hypothesis, in opposition to gradualism, holds that transitions from one species to another occur in comparatively sudden burst.
8. 句子插入題：首先，先判斷題目裡有沒有什麼暗示，例如代詞、轉折詞等等，像這題，關鍵字就是For this reason，代表上一句正在陳述一個原因，而後面幾句又是在陳述在沙漠的情況。
For this reason, the total amount of plant material in a desert is often 100 times less than the amount of plant material in an equivalent area of temperate forest.
The harsh conditions in deserts are intolerable for most plants and animals. Despite these conditions, however, many varieties of plants and animals have adapted to deserts in a number of ways. Most plant tissues die if their water content falls too low: the nutrients that feed plants are transmitted by water; water is a raw material in the vital process of photosynthesis; and water regulates the temperature of a plant by its ability to absorb heat and because water vapor lost to the atmosphere through the leaves helps to lower plant temperatures. □ Water controls the volume of plant matter produced. □ For this reason, the total amount of plant material in a desert is often 100 times less than the amount of plant material in an equivalent area of temperate forest.
The distribution of plants within different areas of desert is also controlled by water. □ Some areas, because of their soil texture, topographical position, or distance from rivers or groundwater, have virtually no water available to plants, whereas others do.
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